The combined effects of population increase and increasing standards of living in developing countries are expected to create a high demand for animal-derived protein by 2050. New initiatives will be required to produce the necessary quantities of high quality protein. We explore a range of initiatives that will help to close this gap. We propose that three simultaneous changes will need to be made to meet future animal-derived protein demand. These are: shifting protein sources up the supply chain; use of plant-based substitutes or extenders for animal-derived protein foods; and use of novel sources for both animal and human nutrition.