No rock at the Earth's surface escapes weathering. This process is the primary source of all the essential elements for organisms, except nitrogen and carbon. Since the onset of terrestrial life, weathering has been accelerated under the influence of biota. The study of biological weathering started at the end of the 19th century. Although the role of bacteria (Eubacteria, Archaea) has attracted a lot of interest, until recently the role of fungi has largely been neglected. More recently, however, fungal weathering has become an increasingly important focus of biogeochemical research.