Animal models for COVID-19

Muñoz-Fontela, César; Dowling, William E.; Funnell, Simon G.P.; Gsell, Pierre S.; Riveros-Balta, Ximena; Albrecht, Randy A.; Andersen, Hanne; Baric, Ralph S.; Carroll, Miles W.; Cavaleri, Marco; Qin, Chuan; Crozier, Ian; Dallmeier, Kai; Waal, Leon de; Wit, Emmie de; Delang, Leen; Dohm, Erik; Duprex, W.P.; Falzarano, Darryl; Finch, Courtney L.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Graham, Barney S.; Gralinski, Lisa; Guilfoyle, Kate; Haagmans, Bart L.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Hartman, Amy L.; Herfst, Sander; Kaptein, Suzanne J.F.; Klimstra, William; Knezevic, Ivana; Krause, Phillip R.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Grand, Roger Le; Lewis, Mark; Liu, Wen-Chun; Maisonnasse, Pauline; McElroy, Anita K.; Munster, Vincent; Oreshkova, N.D.; Rasmussen, Angela L.; Rocha-Pereira, Joana; Rockx, Barry; Rodríguez, Estefania; Rogers, Thomas; Salguero, Francisco J.; Schotsaert, Michael; Stittelaar, Koert; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; Tseng, Chien-Te; Vergara-Alert, Júlia; Beer, Martin; Brasel, Trevor; Chan, Jasper F.W.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Neyts, Johan; Perlman, Stanley; Reed, Douglas S.; Richt, Jürgen A.; Roy, Chad J.; Segalés, Joaquim; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria; Barouch, Dan H.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.