Responsive Supramolecular Polymers (dr. ir. Maarten Smulders)

Research Summary

The research interest in our group lies at the interface of organic synthesis, supramolecular chemistry and polymer science. Currently, my research focusses on: 1) functional, antifouling coatings and 2) dynamic, responsive polymers. In the former area organic synthesis and controlled polymerisation methods are employed to grow well-defined antifouling coatings for sensing and biological applications. In the latter area, (macro)monomers are synthesised and subsequently self-assembled into larger polymer assemblies through reversible (i.e. dynamic-covalent and/or coordination) interactions. When assembled, their inherent dynamic nature renders these materials responsive to external stimuli.

Current research topics

  •     Synthesis of ‘clickable’ monomers for the development of top-functionalisable antifouling polymer films (Stefanie Lange).
  •     Soft as steel: covalent surface modification of stainless steel using a multivalent approach (Medea Kosian).
  •     Functionalised detector surfaces for immunological assays (Esther van Andel).
  •     Dynamically, reconfigurable surfaces (Digvijay Gahtory).
  •     New approaches for macromolecular antifouling coatings (Esther Roeven).

Current group members

Stefanie Lange (postdoc), Medea Kosian (PhD student), Esther van Andel (PhD student), Digvijay Gahtory (PhD student), Esther Roeven (PhD student), Pebrianto Harnawan (MSc student), Kevin van der Maas (MSc student) and Shanice Veraar (BSc student).

Former group members

Fátima García Melo (Mar 2014 – Mar 2016; postdoc), Frank Versluis (Sep 2013 – Sep 2014; postdoc). Alyssa van den Boom (Mar – Jul 2016; BSc student), Marlene Führer (Feb – Jul 2016; BSc student), Quintin van Zuijlen (Feb – Jun 2016; BSc student), Wouter Nielen (Sep 2015 – Mar 2016; MSc student), Janis Pells (Aug – Dec 2015; visiting graduate student), Ian de Bus (Mar – Oct 2015; MSc student), Aljosha Filippov (Nov 2014 – Apr 2015; MSc student), Quirijn van Dierendonck (Jun 2014 – Jul 2015; MSc student), Justin Tauber (Apr – Jul 2014; BSc student), Sebastiaan Roseboom (Feb – Jun 2014; BSc student, HAN).

Opportunities

Our group is always looking for talented and motivated researchers (postdocs, PhD students, MSc and BSc students). If you are interested in joining our group, please contact us. Enquiries should include a CV (mentioning the names of at least two academic referees) and a cover letter.

Biography

Maarten Smulders was born in 1981 in Liempde, the Netherlands. He received his MSc degree cum laude in Chemical Engineering and Chemistry in 2005 from the Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands. From the same University he received in 2009 his PhD degree under the supervision of Prof. Bert Meijer for research on supramolecular polymers and chiral amplification phenomena.

In 2010 he joined the group of Prof. Jonathan Nitschke at the University of Cambridge (UK) as a NWO Rubicon postdoctoral fellow, working on self-assembled metal-organic cages. In October 2012 he moved back to the Netherlands, to work as a NWO Veni fellow in affiliation with Prof. Jeroen Cornelissen, at the University of Twente, on responsive self-assembled materials. In October 2013, he took up a position as assistant professor (tenure-track) in the Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, headed by Prof. Han Zuilhof, at the Wageningen University.

Publication list

Detailed publications & citation information is available via:

http://www.researcherid.com/rid/H-4162-2011 (log-in required)

http://scholar.google.nl/citations?user=Vj9zY6kAAAAJ

2016

40. “Efficient and Tunable Three-Dimensional Functionalization of Fully Zwitterionic Antifouling Surface Coatings” S. C. Lange, E. van Andel, M. M. J. Smulders, H. Zuilhof, Langmuir 2016, 32, 10199-10200. (This paper was selected as ACS Editors' Choice, and also features on the front cover of Langmuir, volume 32, issue 40, 2016)

39. “Dynamic Covalent Polymers” F. García, M. M. J. Smulders*, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2016, 54, 3551-3577. (This invited review features on the front cover of Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, volume 54, issue 22, 2016)

38. “Quantification of Stereochemical Communication in Metal-Organic Assemblies A. M. Castilla, M. A. Miller, J. R. Nitschke, M. M. J. Smulders*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 10616-10620.

37. “Multi-responsive coordination polymers utilising metal-stabilised, dynamic covalent imine bonds” F. García, J. Pelss, H. Zuilhof, M. M. J. Smulders*, Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 9059-9062. (This invited article is part of the themed collection: 2016 Emerging Investigators)

36. “Use of Ambient Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Kinetic Analysis of Organic Surface Reactions” R. Sen, J. Escorihuela, M. M. J. Smulders*, H. Zuilhof, Langmuir 2016, 32, 3412-3419.

35. “Structure and Long-Term Stability of Alkylphosphonic Acid Monolayers on SS316L Stainless Steel” M. Kosian, M. M. J. Smulders, H. Zuilhof, Langmuir 2016, 32, 1047-1057.

34. “Highly Polymer-Repellent yet Atomically Flat Surfaces based on Organic Monolayers with a Single Fluorine Atom” Z. Wang, S. P. Pujari, B. van Lagen, M. M. J. Smulders, H. Zuilhof, Adv. Mater. Interf. 2016, 3, 1500514.

2015

33. “Designed Enclosure Enables Guest Binding Within the 4200 Å3 Cavity of a Self-Assembled Cube” W. J. Ramsay, F. T. Szczypiński, H. Weissman, T. K. Ronson, M. M. J. Smulders, B. Rybtchinski, J. R. Nitschke, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 5636-5640. (This paper features on the inside back cover of Angewandte Chemie International Edition, volume 54, issue 19, 2015)

2013

32. “Quantitative Understanding of Guest Binding Enables the Design of Complex Host-Guest Behavior” M. M. J. Smulders*, S. Zarra, J. R. Nitschke, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 7039-7046.

31. “Generation of a Dynamic System of Three-Dimensional Tetrahedral Polycatenanes S. P. Black, A. R. Stefankiewicz, M. M. J. Smulders, D. Sattler, C. A. Schalley, J. R. Nitschke, J. K. M. Sanders, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 5749-5752. (This paper was highlighted in Nature Chemistry, volume 5, issue 6, 2013)

30. “Chain-Reaction Anion Exchange between Metal-Organic Cages” S. Ma, M. M. J. Smulders, Y. R. Hristova, J. K. Clegg, T. K. Ronson, S. Zarra, J. R. Nitschke, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5678-5684.

29. “Building on architectural principles for three-dimensional metallosupramolecular construction” M. M. J. Smulders, I. A. Riddell, C. Browne, J. R. Nitschke, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 1728-1754. (This paper is among the top-25 most cited papers from 2013 in Chemical Society Reviews, as announced by the journal in March 2015)

28. “A stimuli responsive system of self-assembled anion-binding Fe4L68+ cages” J. K. Clegg, J. Cremers, A. J. Hogben, B. Breiner, M. M. J. Smulders, J. D. Thoburn, J. R. Nitschke, Chem. Sci. 2013, 4, 68-76. (This paper features on the front cover of Chemical Science, volume 4, issue 1, 2013)

2012

27. “Anion-induced reconstitution of a self-assembling system to express a chloride-binding Co10L15 pentagonal prism” I. A. Riddell, M. M. J. Smulders, J. K. Clegg, Y. R. Hristova, B. Breiner, J. D. Thoburn, J. R. Nitschke, Nat. Chem. 2012, 4, 751-756.

26. “Guanidinium Binding Modulates Guest Exchange within an M4L6 Capsule” S. Zarra, M. M. J. Smulders, Q. Lefebvre, J. K. Clegg, J. R. Nitschke, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 6882–6885.

25. “Integrative Self-Sorting Synthesis of a Fe8Pt6L24 Cubic Cage” M. M. J. Smulders, A. Jiménez, J. R. Nitschke, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 6681-6685. (This paper was highlighted in ACS Chemical & Engineering News, issue of June 18, 2012)

24. “Pathway complexity in supramolecular polymerization” P. A. Korevaar, S. J. George, A. J. Markvoort, M. M. J. Smulders, P. A. J. Hilbers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, T. F. A. de Greef, E. W. Meijer, Nature 2012, 481, 492-496.

23. “Supramolecular control over Diels-Alder reactivity by encapsulation and competitive displacement” M. M. J. Smulders, J. R. Nitschke, Chem. Sci. 2012, 3, 785-788. (This paper was highlighted in RSC Chemistry World, issue of January 2012)

22. “Thermodynamics of Supramolecular Naphthalenediimide Nanotube Formation: The Influence of Solvents, Side Chains, and Guest Templates” N. Ponnuswamy, G. D. Pantoş, M. M. J. Smulders, J. K. M. Sanders, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 566-573.

2011

21. Cooperative Two-Component Self-Assembly of Mono- and Ditopic Monomers” M. M. J. Smulders*, M. M. L. Nieuwenhuizen, M. Grossman, I. A. W. Filot, C. C. Lee, T. F. A. de Greef, A. P. H. J. Schenning, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 2011, 44, 6581-6587.

20. “Effect of Stereogenic Centers on the Self-Sorting, Depolymerization, and Atropisomerization Kinetics of Porphyrin-Based Aggregates” F. Helmich, M. M. J. Smulders, C. C. Lee, A. P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 12238-12246.

19. “Selective anion binding by a “Chameleon” capsule with a dynamically reconfigurable exterior” Y. R. Hristova, M. M. J. Smulders, J. K. Clegg, B. Breiner, J. R. Nitschke, Chem. Sci. 2011, 2, 638-641.

18. “Encapsulation, storage and controlled release of sulfur hexafluoride from a metal-organic capsule” I. A. Riddell, M. M. J. Smulders, J. K. Clegg, J. R. Nitschke, Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 457-459.

17. “Unravelling the fine structure of stacked bipyridine diamine-derived C3-discotics as determined by X-ray diffraction, quantum-chemical calculations, Fast-MAS NMR and CD spectroscopy” T. Metzroth, A. Hoffmann, R. Martín-Rapún, M. M. J. Smulders, K. Pieterse, A. R. A. Palmans, J. A. J. M. Vekemans, E. W. Meijer, H. W. Spiess, J. Gauss, Chem. Sci. 2011, 2, 69-76.

16. “The effect of isotopic substitution on the chirality of a self-assembled helix” S. Cantekin, D. W. R. Balkenende, M. M. J. Smulders, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, Nat. Chem. 2011, 3, 42-46.

2010

15. “Hydrogen-bond Engineering in Supramolecular Polymers: Polarity Influence on the Self-Assembly of Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides” T. Mes, M. M. J. Smulders, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 2010, 43, 1981-1991.

14. “Self-Assembly of Ureido-Pyrimidinone Dimers into One-Dimensional Stacks by Lateral Hydrogen Bonding” M. M. L. Nieuwenhuizen, T. F. A. de Greef, R. L. J. van der Bruggen, J. M. J. Paulusse, W. P. J. Appel, M. M. J. Smulders, R. P. Sijbesma, E. W. Meijer, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 1601-1612.

13. “Dynamic Supramolecular Polymers Based on Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides: The Influence of Amide Connectivity on Aggregate Stability and Amplification of Chirality” P. J. M. Stals, J. C. Everts, R. de Bruijn, I. A. W. Filot, M. M. J. Smulders, R. Martín-Rapún, E. A. Pidko, T. F. A. de Greef, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 810-821.

12. “Tuning the Extent of Chiral Amplification by Temperature in a Dynamic Supramolecular Polymer” M. M. J. Smulders, I. A. W. Filot, J. M. A. Leenders, P. van der Schoot, A. R. A. Palmans, A. P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 611-619.

11. “Probing the Limits of the Majority-Rules Principle in a Dynamic Supramolecular Polymer” M. M. J. Smulders, P. J. M. Stals, T. Mes, T. F. E. Paffen, A. P. H. J. Schenning, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 620-626.

10. “How to Distinguish Isodesmic from Cooperative Supramolecular Polymerisation” M. M. J. Smulders, M. M. L. Nieuwenhuizen, T. F. A. de Greef, P. van der Schoot, A. P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer, Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 362-367.

2009

9. “Supramolecular Polymerization” T. F. A. de Greef, M. M. J. Smulders, M. Wolffs, A. P. H. J. Schenning, R. P. Sijbesma, E. W. Meijer, Chem. Rev. 2009, 109, 5687-5754.

8. “Asymmetrically Substituted Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides: Self-Assembly and Odd-Even Effects in the Solid State and in Dilute Solution” P. J. M. Stals, M. M. J. Smulders, R. Martín-Rapún, A. R. A. Palmans, E. W. Meijer, Chem. Eur. J. 2009, 15, 2071-2080.

2008

7. “C3-symmetrical self-assembled structures investigated by vibrational circular dichroism” M. M. J. Smulders, T. Buffeteau, D. Cavagnat, M. Wolffs, A. P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer, Chirality 2008, 20, 1016-1022.

6. “Insight into the Mechanisms of Cooperative Self-Assembly: The "Sergeants-and-Soldiers" Principle of Chiral and Achiral C3-Symmetrical Discotic Triamides” M. M. J. Smulders, A. P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 606-611.

2007

5. “Star-Shaped Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) Substituted Hexaarylbenzene: Purity, Stability, and Chiral Self-assembly” Ž. Tomović, J. van Dongen, S. J. George, H. Xu, W. Pisula, P. Leclère, M. M. J. Smulders, S. de Feyter, E. W. Meijer, A. P. H. J. Schenning, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 16190-16196.

4. “Template Adaptability Is Key in the Oriented Crystallization of CaCO3” D. C. Popescu, M. M. J. Smulders, B. P. Pichon, N. Chebotareva, S.-Y. Kwak, O. L. J. van Asselen, R. P. Sijbesma, E. DiMasi, N. A. J. M. Sommerdijk, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 14058-14067.

3. “Helicity Induction and Amplification in an Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) Assembly through Hydrogen-Bonded Chiral Acids” S. J. George, Ž. Tomović, M. M. J. Smulders, T. F. A. de Greef, P. E. L. G. Leclère, E. W. Meijer, A. P. H. J. Schenning, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 8206-8211.

2. “Molecular Recognition Controls the Organization of Mixed Self-Organized Bis-Urea-Based Mineralization Templates for CaCO3” B. P. Pichon, S. Cantin, M. M. J. Smulders, M. R. J. Vos, N. Chebotareva, D. C. Popescu, O. van Asselen, F. Perrot, R. P. Sijbesma, N. A. J. M. Sommerdijk, Langmuir 2007, 23, 12655-12662.

2005

1. “The Role of Synthetic Pharmaceutical Polymer Excipients in Oral Dosage Forms – Poly(ethylene oxide)-graft-poly(vinyl alcohol) Copolymers in Tablet Coatings” R. Gutzler, M. Smulders, R. F. M. Lange, Macromol. Symp. 2005, 225, 81-94.