Bioelectrochemical systems: application and scale-up

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With increasing worldwide energy demands and raised concerns about the environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are slowly but steadily winning terrain. Apart from the intrinsic demand this puts on the development of new forms of renewable energy, this also requires additional energy storage facilities to cope with the often intermittent character of renewable energy generation. Moreover, along with the growth in energy demand is the need for efficient recycling of nutrients, valuable metals and potential energy in waste streams. For all these challenges, bioelectro-chemical systems (BESs) offer new perspectives.