Biological flocculants form and for saline (waste) water

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Large amounts of saline wastewater are generated by industries such as food, petrochemical and tannery. This has adverse effects on aquatic life, water potability and agriculture when discharged into the environment untreated. Currently, wastewater particle removal is widely achieved with the use of inorganic coagulants or/and oil-based organic polymeric flocculants. Both have non-negligible drawbacks: the former leaves residual metal particles in treated water and the latter leads to formation of toxic degradation products.  Hence, the use of synthetic coagulants/flocculants can hardly be considered a sustainable wastewater treatment approach.