Biological removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater

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Pharmaceutical compounds are being used in increasing quantities worldwide. After consumption human pharmaceuticals end up in wastewaters and are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Wide ranges of pharmaceutical compounds are measured over the last decades in WWTPs, surface waters and even in Dutch drinking water sources. Due to the concerns and potential risks of pharmaceuticals in the environment their presence in surface waters is considered as undesired. WWTPs should be improved to prevent pharmaceuticals ending up in the environment.