In response to ecosystem related concerns about bottom trawling and particularly beam trawling that were raised by various scientists in the last decades of the previous century. Many studies were done in the 1970s and 1980s, but in spite of promising results commercial uptake was lacking. The development of pulse trawling was again taken up in the 1990s by a private company (Verburg:Holland Ltd.) in The Netherlands. Meanwhile questions about ecosystem effects of introducing pulse beam trawling in the Dutch flatfish fishery were raised by the European Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) and the Inter: national Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and discussed at the meeting of the ICES Working Group on Fishing Technology and Fish Behaviour (WGFTFB) in 2006. These questions led to field strength measurements in situ onboard the commercial beam trawler, and research on the effects of pulse stimulation on cod (Gadus morhua L.), and elasmobranch fish.