Early identification of emerging food risks will protect human and animal health, the environment and economy. A two-round Delphi survey identified international experts’ views regarding knowledge gaps associated with the identification and mitigation of emerging food risks, and barriers to emerging risk identification and prevention. The results suggest that keeping emerging food risk on research agendas, data sharing, and international harmonisation regarding application of predictive methodologies were priorities. Capacity and capability building were required in less-affluent countries. A framework for dealing with exceptions to global rules is required if deviations from international standards are to be applied locally.