This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It then proceeds to look at the actors and factors in play. Throughout the paper dairy production and marketing are presented as an application of this model. The objective of this paper is to create an overview of the (possible) interactions between farming and market systems as basis for further research and development of tools etc.