Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, José de la; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, Ronald P. van; Papa, Anna


Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex interactions between pathogens, vectors and humans, in which human interventions and demographic and environmental conditions play a significant role. Herein, we discuss the distal and proximal drivers affecting H2H vector-borne pathogen transmission and identify knowledge gaps and future perspectives.