Xylopia Linnaeus (1759: 1250) is a monophyletic and widely distributed pantropical genus of Annonaceae (Kessler 1993, Dias & Kinoshita 1998, Lopes & Mello-Silva 2014, Stull et al. 2017). Stull et al. (2017) recently revised the infrageneric classification of the genus on the basis of combined data from seed characters and four plastid markers. Three novelties in arilo have been described, they also recognised a new section, Rugosperma, in addition to the four previously existing ones (Engler & Diels 1901). Approximately 65 species of Xylopia Linnaeus (1759: 1250) occur in the Neotropics, of which all are most likely members of section Xylopia Linnaeus (1759: 1250) (Stull et al. 2017). Nearly half (32 species) of the Neotropical taxa occur in Brazil, of which a majority inhabit the Amazon Basin (Lobão & Johnson 2007, Maas & Rainer 2015).