The aim of this paper is to present the development and validation of a high-resolution full scan (HR-FS) electrospray ionization (ESI) liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LC/Q/Orbitrap MS) platform for the screening of prohibited substances in human urine according to World Antidoping Agency (WADA) requirements. The method was also validated for quantitative analysis of six endogenous steroids (epitestosterone, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone) in their intact sulfates form. The sample preparation comprised a combination of a hydrolyzed urine liquid–liquid extraction and the dilute & shoot addition of original urine in the extracted aliquot. The HR-FS MS acquisition mode with Polarity Switching was applied in combination of the Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass filter. The HR-FS acquisition of analytical signal, for known and unknown small molecules, allows the inclusion of all analytes detectable with LC–MS for antidoping investigations to identify the use of known or novel prohibited substances and metabolites after electronic data files’ reprocessing. The method has been validated to be fit-for-purpose for the antidoping analysis.