In many countries the biofuel sector was encouraged to expand its activities, supported by public policies incentives, with the main aims to improve energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Brazilian government followed these initiatives and undertook its responsibilities considering the international consensus related to the need to mitigate climate change. One of the theses commitments concerned actions to reduce the GHG emissions by 37% in 2020. The Sugarcane Agroecology Zoning provides technical support to policy makers in order to direct sugarcane expansion to permitted areas. It is considered a guideline to achieve sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. However, although the zoning aimed at sustainable production, it only considered natural aspects of the country, as soils and climate. Currently an approach that considers all three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social) is still missing. This paper proposes a framework to evaluate biofuel sustainability to support public policies, especially concerning improvements in Brazilian decision-support tools.