The Determination of Marine Biotoxins in Seafood

Gerssen, Arjen; Klijnstra, Mirjam D.


Marine biotoxins are natural toxins produced by specific algae species. These toxins can accumulate in seafood such as mussels, oysters and fish. Consumption of contaminated seafood may lead to severe intoxication such as memory loss, paralysis, diarrhoea and even death. In order to protect consumers, a wide variety of methods have been developed. Historically, methods were based on in vivo animal assays. Alternatives for these animal unfriendly and unethical assays have been developed and are still under development. Other alternative methods are based on in vitro cell assays, receptor binding assays, immunological assays and analytical chemical techniques. This chapter gives an overview on the available methodologies and their application for the determination of marine biotoxins in seafood.