The scarcity or complete lack of information on the adenoviruses (AdVs) occurring in the most ancient non-human primates resulted in the initiation of a study for exploring their abundance and diversity in prosimians and New World monkeys (NWMs). In order to assess the variability of these AdVs and the possible signs of the hypothesised virus−host co-evolution, samples from almost every family of NWMs and prosimians were screened for the presence of AdVs. A PCR-screening of 171 faecal or organ samples from live or dead, captive or wild-living prosimians and NWMs was performed. The PCR products from the gene of the IVa2 protein were sequenced and used in phylogeny calculations. The presence of 10 and 15 new AdVs in seven and ten different species of prosimians and NWMs was revealed, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the tentative novel AdVs cluster into two separate groups, which form the most basal branches among the primate AdVs, and therefore support the theory on the co-evolution of primate AdVs with their hosts. This is the first report that provides a comprehensive overview of the AdVs occurring in prosimians and NWMs, and the first insight into the evolutionary relationships among AdVs from all major primate groups.