This study investigates muscle growth mechanisms in juvenile rainbow trout in response to isoenergetic changes in dietary non-protein energy (NPE) source (F, fat vs. C, carbohydrates) at two levels of digestible protein to digestible energy (DP/DE) ratio. Fish (initial weight 32.4 g) were fed four diets having similar DE levels (~18 kJ g−1) with a high (HP/E~26 mg kJ−1) vs. low (LP/E~14 mg kJ−1) DP/DE ratio using F or C as major NPE source (7 week-experiment). The lowering of dietary DP/DE ratio increased myoblast determination protein 1a (myod1a) and decreased myostatin 1b (mstn1b) and cathepsin D (ctsd) muscle mRNA levels. The isoenergetic change in dietary NPE from F to C decreased myod1a and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (pcna) muscle mRNA levels. An interaction between DP/DE ratio and NPE source was observed in muscle transcript levels of myogenic factor 6 (mrf4/myf6), fast myosin heavy chain (fmhc) and fast myosin light chain 2 (fmlc2). White muscle total cross-sectional area decreased at low dietary DP/DE ratio and also when NPE source changed from F to C, linked i) to a decreased total number of white muscle fibres, indicating that low dietary DP/DE restricted muscle hyperplasia and that dietary carbohydrate were less efficiently used than fat to sustain muscle hyperplasia, and ii) to decreased percentage of large muscle fibres, indicating limited fibre hypertrophy. Not only the DP level or the DP/DE ratio, but also the isoenergetic change in dietary NPE source (fat vs carbohydrates) thus appears as a potent regulator of muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy.