This article describes the role of social capital and power as a significant underlying factor influencing water security in peri-urban Gurgaon. The article shows how differential access to social capital shapes differential access to water. In peri-urban contexts, communities that lack access to water mobilise their social capital to enhance their water security. We use the concepts of power and social capital to explain how the actors interact in peri-urban Gurgaon, paying attention to which social groups are powerful and how the powerless use social capital to adapt to changing resource access and usage. We conclude by drawing theoretical- and policy-relevant insights from the field.