BACKGROUND: Protein supplementation improves physiological adaptations to endurance training, but the impact on adaptive changes in the skeletal muscle transcriptome remains elusive. The present analysis was executed to determine the impact of protein supplementation on changes in the skeletal muscle transcriptome following 5-weeks of endurance training. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle tissue samples from the vastus lateralis were taken before and after 5-weeks of endurance training to assess changes in the skeletal muscle transcriptome. One hundred and 63 genes were differentially expressed after 5-weeks of endurance training in both groups (q-value< 0.05). In addition, the number of genes differentially expressed was higher in the protein group (PRO) (892, q-value< 0.05) when compared with the control group (CON) (440, q-value< 0.05), with no time-by-treatment interaction effect (q-value> 0.05). Endurance training primarily affected expression levels of genes related to extracellular matrix and these changes tended to be greater in PRO than in CON. CONCLUSIONS: Protein supplementation subtly impacts endurance training-induced changes in the skeletal muscle transcriptome. In addition, our transcriptomic analysis revealed that the extracellular matrix may be an important factor for skeletal muscle adaptation in response to endurance training. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03462381, March 12, 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03462381.