Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model bacterium to study the degradation of organic compounds coupled to the reduction of Fe(III). The response of G. sulfurreducens to the electron donors acetate, formate, hydrogen and a mixture of all three with Fe(III) citrate as electron acceptor was studied using comparative physiological and proteomic approaches. Variations in the supplied electron donors resulted in differential abundance of proteins involved in the citric acid cycle (CAC), gluconeogenesis, electron transport, and hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenase. Our results provided new insights into the electron donor metabolism of G. sulfurreducens. Remarkably, formate was the preferred electron donor compared to acetate, hydrogen, or acetate plus hydrogen. When hydrogen was the electron donor, formate was formed, which was associated with a high abundance of formate dehydrogenase. Notably, abundant proteins of two CO2 fixation pathways (acetyl-CoA pathway and the reversed oxidative CAC) corroborated chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens with formate or hydrogen and CO2, and provided novel insight into chemolithoautotrophic growth of G. sulfurreducens.