A biaryl-linked tripeptide from Planomonospora reveals a widespread class of minimal RiPP gene clusters

Zdouc, Mitja M.; Alanjary, M.M.; Zarazúa, Guadelupe S.; Maffioli, Sonia I.; Crüsemann, M.; Medema, M.H.; Donadio, Stefano; Sosio, Margherita


Microbial natural products impress by their bioactivity, structural diversity, and ingenious biosynthesis. While screening the less exploited actinobacterial genus Planomonospora, two cyclopeptides were discovered, featuring an unusual Tyr-His biaryl bridging across a tripeptide scaffold, with the sequences N-acetyl-Tyr-Tyr-His and N-acetyl-Tyr-Phe-His. Planomonospora genomes pointed toward a ribosomal synthesis of the cyclopeptide from a pentapeptide precursor encoded by 18-bp bytA, to our knowledge the smallest coding gene ever reported. Closely linked to bytA is bytO, encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase likely responsible for biaryl installment. In Streptomyces, the bytAO segment was sufficient to direct production of the crosslinked N-acetylated Tyr-Tyr-His tripeptide. Bioinformatic analysis of related cytochrome P450 monooxygenases indicated that they constitute a widespread family of enzymes, and the corresponding genes are closely linked to 5-amino acid coding sequences in approximately 200 (actino)bacterial genomes, all with potential for biaryl linkage between amino acids 1 and 3. We propose the named biarylitides this family of RiPPs.