Development of a new generic extraction method for the analysis of pesticides, mycotoxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in representative animal feed and food samples

Eyring, Philipp; Tienstra, Marc; Mol, Hans; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Mette Erecius


Various generic extraction methods have been used to determine pesticide residues, mycotoxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food and animal feed to ensure consumer safety. However, these methods cannot extract all relevant compounds at an acceptable rate of recovery. This study presents a new extraction method. This new method facilitated the identification of 231 compounds, including 196 pesticides, 11 mycotoxins, and 24 PAHs over a broad range of polarities. These compounds were identified in various sample matrices, including those that are lipid-rich. The processed sample is first extracted with water, acetonitrile, formic acid, and heptane. The addition of ammonium formate results in separation into three phases and enables analysis of the aqueous phase. Solid-phase extraction clean-up procedures were performed as necessary followed by analysis by liquid or gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Analyte recoveries were typically in the range of 70 – 120% with relative standard deviations below 20%.