Rapid urbanization results in the production of huge amounts of wastewater, usually not paired with adequate treatment facilities. Together with the overexploitation of freshwater resources, this puts a huge stress on freshwater supply, especially in urban environments. Implementation of new conventional sewage treatment plants (STPs) in dense urban environments may not be possible due to lack of space. Therefore, a novel approach to treat urban wastewater efficiently is urgently needed. This research project aims at developing a novel (post) and compact wastewater treatment system, called Vital Urban Filter (VUF) that can recover and utilise water and nutrients from urban wastewater in a safe manner.