Water, especially fresh water, is crucial for sustaining human populations and enabling economic growth. Worldwide 1.2 billion people live in physical water scarcity, and 1.6 billion in economic water shortage. Even in a “wet” country such as the Netherlands extreme weather events, sea level rise, and overexploitation threaten existing fresh water resources. Increased salt water intrusion, due to sea level rise, threatens to turn fresh water resources saline in the low lying areas of the Netherlands. A paradigm shift in the way water is used is required to assure continued abundance for domestic, agriculture, and industrial purposes.