Identification and confirmation of known as well as unknown (bio)chemical entities in ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and MS imaging (MSI) mostly involve accurate mass determination, often in combination with MS/MS or MSn work flows. To further improve structural assignment, additional molecular information is required. Here we present an ambient hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS method in which, apart from the accurate mass and MS/MS data, the number of exchangeable protons in (un)known molecules is obtained. While eventually presenting ambient HDX-LAESI-MSI, samples were not preincubated with deuterated solvents, but instead HDX occurred following fusion of ablated sample material with microdroplets generated by ESI of deuterated solvents. Therefore, the degree of HDX was first studied following ablation of nondeuterated sample solutions of melamine and monosaccharides. From these experiments, it was concluded that the set-up used could provide meaningful HDX data in support of molecular structure elucidation by significantly reducing the number of structure options from a measured elemental composition. This reduction was demonstrated with an unknown accurate m/z value obtained in the analysis of an orange slice, reducing the possible number of molecular structures having the same elemental composition by 87% due to the number of H/D exchanges observed. Next, deuterated and nondeuterated MS/MS experiments showed the number of exchangeable protons in the substructures from deuterated neutral losses in the product ion spectra, confirming the compound to be arginine. Finally, the potential of ambient HDX-LAESI-MSI was demonstrated by the imaging of (secondary) plant metabolites in a Phalaenopsis petal.