Removal of pharmaceuticals in constructed wetlands


Pollution by pharmaceuticals presents a challenge which is not satisfactorily solved by conventional wastewater treatment technologies. Some effective, advanced treatment technologies take high construction and maintenance costs, high energy consumption, and require qualified permanent staff for their operation. Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be managed as water quality improving systems representing an alternative or additional low-cost wastewater treatment. We aim to investigate the removal mechanism in CWs, to understand the pathways that are responsible for the removal, and to further optimize the removal efficiency.