Frankincense is being traded for a few thousand years already and cherished by hundreds of millions worldwide. But its production is expected to half within 2 decades. This is the worrisome conclusion of a study by a group of Ethiopian and Dutch scientists that was published in Nature Sustainability today. The conclusion is based on model predictions on population development of frankincense trees in the Horn of Africa. Browsing by cattle, goats and camels, burning and insect outbreaks, are likely causes for the population decline.
Frankincense is used in perfumes and incense. The iconic resin frankincense is sourced from trees and shrubs growing in dry woodlands mainly in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian peninsula and India. The paper in Nature Sustainability shows that populations of Boswellia papyrifera trees, currently the main frankincense source, are declining fast. This brings the current production of frankincense under serious threat.
Frankincense tree is disappearing
The study combines field monitoring, dendrochronology, resin production, and demographic population models. In Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan, 23 sites with populations of the frankincense tree were measured and in some locations monitored for years. 18 of the 23 populations had hardly any recruits, suggesting a regeneration bottleneck. In four sites tree ages were determined based on tree-ring analyses, which allowed to estimate the age distribution of the whole population and for how long regeneration had not taken place. In two of the four populations this regeneration gap was half a century. In the other two populations it was a quarter. Most populations thus consisted of old trees and had little regeneration.
Future looks grim
With older trees dying fast and no young ones coming up, the frankincense woodlands will disappear. Professor Frans Bongers of Wageningen University & Research and lead author, highlights the severity: “With even the better protected woodlands not regenerating, the older trees in the population dying, and the remaining adults being too heavily tapped, the future of these woodlands and their frankincense production look grim”.
Action is urgently needed
The authors call for concerted action to prevent a collapse: improved forest restoration initiatives, protecting woodlands and young plants, planting trees and caring for them, adapting rules and regulations, and maybe above all, enforcing them. Dr Abeje Eshete from the Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute: “There are guidelines for tapping practices, but these need to be followed better. This requires better instructions and enforcement. Not only the woodland and tree management needs improvement. Also a better control and management of the whole chain is required, including more equitable sharing of profits”.
Similar threats to other species
The authors also indicate that the other frankincense species growing in Oman, Yemen, India, Somalia and Kenia, are undergoing similar threats. An international task force consisting of specialists, governments, traders and consumers should join hands to protect the species and promote sustainable management.