MARINA

MARINA stands for a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs (or lAkes). River inputs of nutrients are quantified as a function of human activities on land and sub-basin characteristics. Retentions and losses of nutrients in soils and rivers are taken into account (figure below).
There are several versions of the MARINA model (Table below). MARINA 1.0 is the original version that was developed for China. MARINA 1.0 quantifies annual river export of nutrients to the Chinese seas for the past and future. The other versions are based on the original version of MARINA 1.0.