Publications

The Chara Genome: Secondary Complexity and Implications for Plant Terrestrialization

Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Vries, Jan de; Buschmann, Henrik; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Ullrich, Kristian K.; Haas, Fabian B.; Vanderstraeten, Lisa; Becker, Dirk; Lang, Daniel; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Rombauts, Stephane; Wilhelmsson, Per K.I.; Janitza, Philipp; Kern, Ramona; Heyl, Alexander; Rümpler, Florian; Villalobos, L.I.A.C.; Clay, John M.; Skokan, Roman; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Schijlen, Elio; Tajeshwar, Navindra; Catarino, Bruno; Hetherington, Alexander J.; Saltykova, Assia; Bonnot, Clemence; Breuninger, Holger; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Radhakrishnan, Guru V.; Nieuwerburgh, Filip Van; Deforce, Dieter; Chang, Caren; Karol, Kenneth G.; Hedrich, Rainer; Ulvskov, Peter; Glöckner, Gernot; Delwiche, Charles F.; Petrášek, Jan; Peer, Yves Van de; Friml, Jiri; Beilby, Mary; Dolan, Liam; Kohara, Yuji; Sugano, Sumio; Fujiyama, Asao; Delaux, Pierre Marc; Quint, Marcel; Theißen, Günter; Hagemann, Martin; Harholt, Jesper; Dunand, Christophe; Zachgo, Sabine; Langdale, Jane; Maumus, Florian; Straeten, Dominique Van Der; Gould, Sven B.; Rensing, Stefan A.

Summary

Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae
possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii;
comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified
evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant
heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids
are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and
transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The
morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene
families, with three cases of particular note: genes effecting tolerance
to reactive oxygen species (ROS), LysM receptor-like kinases, and transcription factors (TFs). Transcriptomic analysis of sexual reproductive structures reveals intricate control by TFs, activity of the ROS gene network, and the ancestral use of plant-like storage and stress protection proteins in the zygote.