Pan-genome analysis and ancestral state reconstruction of class halobacteria : probability of a new super-order

Gaba, Sonam; Kumari, Abha; Medema, Marnix; Kaushik, Rajeev


Halobacteria, a class of Euryarchaeota are extremely halophilic archaea that can adapt to a wide range of salt concentration generally from 10% NaCl to saturated salt concentration of 32% NaCl. It consists of the orders: Halobacteriales, Haloferaciales and Natriabales. Pan-genome analysis of class Halobacteria was done to explore the core (300) and variable components (Softcore: 998, Cloud:36531, Shell:11784). The core component revealed genes of replication, transcription, translation and repair, whereas the variable component had a major portion of environmental information processing. The pan-gene matrix was mapped onto the core-gene tree to find the ancestral (44.8%) and derived genes (55.1%) of the Last Common Ancestor of Halobacteria. A High percentage of derived genes along with presence of transformation and conjugation genes indicate the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer during the evolution of Halobacteria. A Core and pan-gene tree were also constructed to infer a phylogeny which implicated on the new super-order comprising of Natrialbales and Halobacteriales.