Comparative assessment of biochar stability using multiple indicators

Jindo, Keiji; Sonoki, Tomonori


Biochar application is one strategy proposed to improve carbon sequestration in soil. Maintaining high carbon content in soil for a long period requires stable biochar. In this work, we assessed biochar stability by two methodologies, i.e., laboratory incubation and chemical oxidation. Biochar was produced at four different temperatures (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw and husk, applewood branch (Malus pumila), and oak (Quercus serrata Murray) residues. Results showed that the high-temperature biochars were more stable in both abiotic and biotic incubations, whereas the low-temperature biochars had reduced longevity. In addition, we showed biochars originated from woody material have higher stable carbon than those produced from rice residues. Finally, the oxidative assessment method provided a more reliable estimation of stability than the biotic incubation method and showed a strong correlation with other stability indicators.