Biodiversity of hard substrates in the Dutch North Sea

As a result of human activity, hard substrate is increasingly present in the North Sea. Examples are wrecks, oil rigs, windmills and coastal defense.

Data on the occurrence of species on hard substrate are available, but there is no functional understanding of the relationship between substrate type and species composition. It is conceivable that different substrate types have different effects on biodiversity, but the knowledge at IMARES about biodiversity on hard substrate in the North Sea is currently minimal. The aim of this project is to map biodiversity on artificial hard substrate in relation to functional characteristics of the substrate (depth, material, structural complexity).