Trends in total sales - MARAN

The total sales of antibiotics, licensed for therapeutic use in animals in the Netherlands, decreased from 495 tonnes in 2009 to an estimated 244 tonnes in 2012, which is a decrease of 51% (FIDIN, 2012). This means that the policy objective for the year 2013 - a 50% reduction compared with 2009 - will probably already be reached in 2012. Almost all classes of antibiotics showed a decrease.

Figure 3.1 shows the trend in the total sales (in bars). The trend is also expressed in grams of active substance per kg of live weight present (line), to adjust for possible fluctuations in the size of the animal population.

Figure 3.1

Discussion

The total sales volume amounted to an estimated 244 tonnes in 2012, which is substantially below the level of the year 1999. Moreover, at that time an additional 250 tonnes of antimicrobial growth promoters were used (see Table 3.1).

Tetracyclines

The sales data indicate a total decrease of 61% for tetracyclines in the period 2009-2012. The underlying detailed data show a stronger decrease of oxytetracyclines (67%) than of doxycyclines (49%).

Fluoroquinolones

In the first half year of 2012 the quinolones represented 1.3% of the total veterinary antibiotic sales in the Netherlands; the 'newer' fluoroquinolones represented 0.41% of the total sales (danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin). In the period 2009-2012 the sales of quinolones decreased by 59%; the newer fluoroquinolones showed a decrease of 23%.

Cephalosporins

In the first half year of 2012 the cephalosporins represented 0.10% of the total sales. In the period 2009-2012 the estimated sales of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (cefoperazon, cefovecin, cefquinome, ceftiofur, cefuroxim) showed an enormous decrease of 92%, to 0.03% of the total sales.

Table 3.1