As shown in Figure 4.1, sample surveys reveal the following tendencies for the years 2009 to the first half year of 2012, indicating a further decrease in antibiotic use in all five studied livestock sectors in the Netherlands in 2012, when extrapolated to annual usage.
The sample surveys indicate a decrease in all livestock sectors in the Netherlands in 2012. The usage data in Figure 4.1 are indexed, using 2009 as baseline year. The continuous line represents the estimated average use. The 95% confidence intervals are indicated by the dotted lines. In the paragraphs per livestock sector the results are presented from 2004 to 2012.
Figure 4.1 shows the tendencies in antibiotic use per animal species from 2009 to 2012, indicating a further decrease in all studied livestock sectors in the Netherlands in 2012. The trends over the last years are:
- sow/piglet farms: strong decrease, levelled off a bit in 2012;
- fattening pig farms: continuous strong decrease;
- broiler farms: strong decrease, levelled off a bit in 2012;
- veal calf farms: continuous substantial decrease;
- dairy farms: annual variation, strong decrease in 2012.
Note that the exposure in 2012 is an estimate based on preliminary data of the first half year. Final figures about the antibiotic usage in the whole year 2012 may differ from this estimate, because of the following factors:
- analysis of more sample farms: the estimate is based on approximately 80% of the sample farms;
- structural seasonal effects: there might be seasonal differences in usage due to different weather conditions in winter, spring and early summer compared with autumn and early winter;
- incidents: antibiotic usage will be lower in case of no outbreaks of diseases or extreme beneficial weather conditions, and vice versa;
- normal stocks of veterinary medicines: the same stock has an higher impact on a half-year estimate compared with a year estimate.
Except for the first comment, the comments above also hold for the total sales data.
On the following pages the use of the different types of antibiotics per livestock species is addressed in detail.