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References use of SWAP

On this page a reference list is given of recently published, agro- or ecohydrological studies which employed the SWAP model.

General Reference to Swap

  • Van Dam, J.C., P. Groenendijk, R.F.A. Hendriks and J.G. Kroes, 2008. Advances of modeling water flow in variably saturated soils with SWAP. Vadose Zone J., Vol.7, No.2, May 2008.
  • Van Dam, J.C., 2000. Field-scale water flow and solute transport. SWAP model concepts, parameter estimation, and case studies. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 167 p., English and Dutch summaries

About the use of Swap

  • Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, P. Groenendijk, R.F.A. Hendriks and C.M.J. Jacobs, 2008.  SWAP version 3.2. Theory description and user manual. Alterra-report 1649, 262 pp, Alterra, Research Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Kroes, J.G. and J.C. van Dam (eds), 2003. Reference Manual SWAP version 3.0.3. Alterra-report 773, 211 pp, Alterra, Research Institute, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Huygen, J., J.C. van Dam, J.G. Kroes, 2000. Swap Graphical User Interface,  User Manual, version January 2000, Alterra, Wageningen
  • Kroes, J.G., J.C. van Dam, J. Huygen, and R.W. Vervoort, 1999. User’s Guide of SWAP version 2.0. Simulation of water flow, solute transport and plant growth in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant environment. Technical Document 48, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, Report 81, Department of Water Resources, Wageningen University, 127 p.
  • Van Dam, J.C., J. Huygen, J.G. Wesseling, R.A. Feddes, P. Kabat, P.E.V. van Walsum, P. Groenendijk and C.A. van Diepen, 1997. Theory of SWAP version 2.0. Simulation of water flow, solute transport and plant growth in the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant environment. Report 71, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University, Technical document 45, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.

Applications: field scale

  • Clemente, R.S., R. de Jong, H.N. Hayhoe, W.D. Reynolds and M. Hares, 1994. Testing and comparisons of three unsaturated soil water flow models. Agric. Water Manage., 25: 135-152.
  • Beekma, J., T.J. Kelleners, T.M. Boers, and Z.I. Raza, 1995. Applications of SWATRE to evaluate drainage of an irrigated field in the Indus Plain, Pakistan. In ‘Crop-water-simulation models in practice.’ Proc. ICID Congress 1993, The Hague, The Netherlands, p. 141-160.
  • Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., J. Huygen, J.K. Schakel, and B.J. van den Broek, 1996a. Modelling the soil-water-crop-atmosphere system to improve agricultural water management in arid zones (SWATRE). In ‘Dutch experience in irrigation water management modelling’, B.J. van den Broek (Ed.), Report 123, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, p. 13-30.
  • Jong, R. de, and A. Bootsma, 1997. Estimates of water deficits and surpluses during the growing season in Ontario using the SWATRE model. Can. J. Soil Sci., 77: 285-294.
  • Droogers, P., G. Kite, and H. Murray-Rust, 2000a. Use of simulation models to evaluate irrigation performances including water productivity, risk and system analyses. Submitted to Irrig. Sci.
  • Kroes, J.G., J.G. Wesseling and J.C. Van Dam, 2000. Integrated modelling of the soil-water-atmosphere-plant system using the model SWAP 2.0 an overview of theory and an application. Hydrol.Process. 14, 1993-2002 (2000)
  • Kroes, J.G., J Beldman, J.G. te Beest, D. Boland, Th. Vellinga, 2001. Conflicting interests in a Dutch agricultural diary farming system, paper presented at IAHS symposium, 2-4 October, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Applications: Evapotranspiration

  • Droogers, P., 2000. Estimating actual evapotranspiration using a detailed agro-hydrological model. J. Hydrol., 229: 50-58.
  • Tol, C. van der, 2000. Soil evaporation and plant transpiration as simulated by the FAO-56 method and the agrohydrological model SWAP. MSc-thesis, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University.
  • Droogers, P., and W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, 2000. Evapotranspiration in irrigation performance and water accounting frameworks: an assessment from combined hydrological and remote sensing modeling. Submitted to J. Irrig. Drain. Eng.
  • Utset, A., F. Imma, A. Martinez-Cob, and J. Cavero, 2004. Comparing Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor as reference evapotranspiration inputs for modeling maize water use under Mediterranean conditions. Agric. Water Manag. 66: 205-219.
  • de Jong van Lier, Q., J.C. van Dam, K. Metselaar, R. de Jong, and W.H.M. Duynisveld, 2008. A new macroscopic root water uptake distribution concept. Vadose Zone J., in press.

Applications: Irrigation scheduling

  • Jacucci et al., 1995. HYDRA, a decision support model for irrigation water management. In ‘Crop-water-simulation models in practice.’ Proc. ICID Congress 1993, The Hague, The Netherlands, p. 315-332.
  • Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., R. Singh, and S. Kumar, 1996b. Analysis and recommendations for integrated on-farm water management in Haryana, India: a model approach. Report 118, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 152 p.
  • Hoven, C.A. van den, 1997. Regional water resources management in the Andean region with numerical models and satellite remote sensing. Evaluation of user’s oriented water application strategies in irrigation schems (Mendoza, Argentina) using a one-dimensional model of solute and unsaturated flow. Report 75.3, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 113 p.
  • Kuper, M., 1998. Irrigation management strategies for improved salinity and sodicity control. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, 238 p.
  • Groot, W.J.M. de, and M.J.D. Hack-ten Broeke, 1999. Verification of irrigation planning with the hydrological model SWAP2.0. Research results 1997. Report 661, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 80 p. (in Dutch)
  • Droogers, P., W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, M. Beyazgül, Y. Kayam, G.W. Kite, and H. Murray-Rust, 2000b. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling of an irrigation system in western Turkey. Agric. Water Manage., in press.
  • Droogers, P., W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, M. Beyazgül, Y. Kayam, G.W. Kite, and H. Murray-Rust, 2000. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling of an irrigation system in western Turkey. Agric. Water Manage., in press.
  • Dam, J.C. van, and R.S. Malik (Eds.), 2003. Water productivity of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India. Integration of remote sensing, crop and soil models and geographical information systems. WATPRO final report, including CD-ROM. ISBN 90-6464-864-6. 173 pp.
  • Singh, R., J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes. 2006. Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India. Agric. Water Manag. 82: 253-278.
  • Singh, R., J.G. Kroes, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes. 2006. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the irrigation system performance in Sirsa district. I. Current water management and its productivity. J. Hydrol. 329: 692-713.
  • Singh, R., R.K. Jhorar, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes. 2006. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate the irrigation system performance in Sirsa district. II. Impact of alternative water management scenarios. J. Hydrol. 329: 714-723.
  • Dam, J.C. van, R. Singh, J.J.E. Bessembinder, P.A. Leffelaar, W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, R.K. Jhorar, J.G. Kroes, and P. Droogers, 2006. Assessing options to increase water productivity in irrigated river basins using remote sensing and modeling tools. Water Res. Development 22: 115-133.
  • Bastiaanssen, W.G.M., R.G. Allen, P. Droogers, G.D’Urso and P. Steduto, 2007. Twenty-five years modeling irrigated and drained soils: state of the art. Agric. Water Manage. 92: 111-125.
  • Vazifedoust, M., J.C. van Dam, R.A. Feddes and M. Feizi, 2008. Increasing water productivity of irrigated crops under limited water supply at field scale. Agric. Water Manage., 95, 89-102

Applications: Plant growth

  • Broek, B.J. van den, and P. Kabat, 1995. SWACROP: dynamic simulation model of soil water and crop yield applied to potatoes. In ‘Modeling and parameterization of the Soil-Plant-Atmospere System. A comparison of potato growth models’, P. Kabat, B. Marshall, B.J. van den broek, J. Vos and H. van Keulen (Eds.), Wageningen Press, p. 299-334.
  • Neut, D. van der, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes, 1995. Effects of higher surface water levels in ‘De Hoeksche Waard’. An evaluation of yield reductions of potatoes and sugar beets at 4 drainage depths during 42 years. Report 48, Subdep. Water Resources, Wageningen University, 69 p.
  • Tedeschi, A., G. Barbieri, and M. Menenti, 1996. Impact of saline water on soil properties and crop yield: a simulation study. In ‘Sustainability of irrigated agriculture: crop-water-environment models’, R. Ragab, D.E. El-Quosy, B.J. van den Broek and L.S. Pereira (Eds.), Proc. ICID congress, Sept. 1996, Cairo, Egypt, p. 126-139.
  • Li, K.Y., J.B. Boisvert, and R. de Jong, 1999. An exponential root water uptake model. Can. J. Soil Sci., 79: 333-343.
  • Droogers, P., J.C. van Dam, J. Hoogeveen, and R. Loeve. 2004. Adaptation strategies to climate change to sustain food security. p. 49-74. In J.C.J.H. Aerts and P. Droogers (ed.) Climate change in contrasting river basins. CABI publisher, London.
  • Eitzinger, J., M. Trnka, J. Hösch, Z. Zalud and M. Dubrovsky, 2004. Comparison of CERES, WOFOST and SWAP models simulating soil water content during growing season under different soil conditions. Ecological Modelling 171: 223-246

Applications: Field scale salinization

  • Smets, S.M.P., M. Kuper, J.C. van Dam, and R.A. Feddes, 1997. Salinization and crop transpiration of irrigated fields in Pakistan’s Punjab. Agric. Water Manage., 35: 43-60.
  • Feddes, R.A., and J.C. van Dam, 1997. Modelling of water flow and salt transport for irrigation management and drainage design. In ‘Water management, salinity and pollution control towards sustainable irrigation in the Meditterranean region’, Int. Conf., Sept. 1997, Bari, Italy, p. 145-179.
  • Hamaker, P., W.H.B. Aarnink, and J.M.P.M. Peerboom, 1997. Effects of reducing water supply and leaching of the area Voorne-West. Report 435, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 149 p. (in Dutch)
  • Prathapar, S.A., A.S. Quereshi, and S.M.P. Smets, 1997. Mechanically reclaiming abandoned saline soils: a numerical evaluation. In ‘Drainage for the 21st century’, Proc. Int. Drainage Workshop, Nov. 1997, Penang, Malaysia, Vol. 3, 17 p.

Applications: Groundwater fluctuations

  • Knotters, M., and P.E.V. van Walsum, 1997. Estimating fluctuation quantities from time series of water-table depths using models with a stochastic component. J. Hydrol., 197: 25-46.
  • Bierkens, M.F.P., 1998. Modeling water table fluctuations by means of a stochastic differential equation. Water Resour. Res., 34: 2485-2499.
  • Knotters, M., and J.G. de Gooijer, 1999. TARSO modeling of water table depths. Water Resour. Res., 35: 695-705.
  • Massop, H.T.H.L., T. Kroon, P.J.T. van Bakel, W.J. de Lange, A. van der Giessen, M.J.H. Pastoors, and J. Huygen, 2000. Hydrology for STONE; schematization and parameterization. Report 38, Serie Milieu Planbureau 9, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 101 p. (in Dutch)

Applications: Dynamic drainage criteria

  • Sarwar, A., 2000. A transient model approach to improve on-farm irrigation and drainage in semi-arid zones. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 143 p.
  • Sarwar, A., and R.A. Feddes. 2000. Evaluating drainage design parameters for the Fourth Drainage Project, Pakistan, by using the SWAP model. Irrig. Drain. Syst. 14: 281-299.
  • Sarwar, A., W.M.G. Bastiaanssen, Th.M. Boers, and J.C. van Dam. 2000. Evaluating drainage design parameters for the fourth drainage project, Pakistan by using the SWAP model: Part 1: Calibration. Irrig. Drain. Syst. 14: 257-280.

Applications: Improvement of surface water management

  • Massop, H.Th.L., J.M.P.M. Peerboom, and H.C. van Vessem, 1994. Effects of measures to alleviate desiccation at rural estate ‘De Wildenborch’. Report 342, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 128 p. (in Dutch)
  • Spieksma, J.F.M., J.M. Schouwenaars, and J. Blankenburg, 1996. Combined modelling of groundwater table and open water level in raised mires. Nordic Hydrol., 27: 231-246.
  • Bierkens, M.F.P., P.J.T. van Bakel, and J.G. Wesseling, 1999. Comparison of two modes of surface water control using a soil water model and surface elevation data. Geoderma, 89: 149-175.

Applications: Pesticide leaching

  • Groen, K.P., 1997. Pesticide leaching in polders. Field and model studies on cracked clays and loamy sand. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 296 p.
  • Veen, J.R. van de, F. van den Berg, H.A.J. Pellikaan-van Harten, M. Leistra, and J.J.T.I. Boesten, 1997. Leaching of pesticides from soils in greenhouses to open water ditches. Report 481.2, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.

Applications: Waterflow related to pesticide and nutrient leaching

  • Kroes, J.G., and J. Roelsma, 1998. User’s Guide ANIMO 3.5; input instructions and technical programme description. Technical Document 46, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.
  • Berg, F. van den, and J.J.T.I. Boesten, 1998. PEsticide Leaching and Accumulation model (PESTLA) version 3.4; description and user’s guide. Technical Document 43, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 150 p.
  • Kroes, J.G., P. Groenendijk, and J. Huygen, 1999. Hydrology for STONE: calculations with SWAP 207d. Tech. Doc. 57, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 49 p. (in Dutch)
  • Groenendijk, P. and J.G. Kroes, 1999. Modelling the nitrogen and phosphorus leaching to groundwater and surface water; ANIMO 3.5. Report 144, DLO-Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.
  • Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D., 2000. Nitrate leaching from dairy farming on sandy soils. Case studies for experimental farm De Marke. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 145 p.
  • Groenendijk, P., and G.A.P.H. van den Eertwegh. 2004. Drainage-water travel times as a key factor for surface water contamination. p. 145-178. In R.A. Feddes, G.H. de Rooij and J.C. van Dam (ed.) Unsaturated zone modeling. Progress, challenges and applications. Wageningen UR Frontis Series. Vol. 6. Kluwer Ac.  Pub. Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Applications: Soil water flow as affected by soil spatial heterogeneity

  • Feddes, R.A., G.H. de Rooij, J.C. van Dam, P. Kabat, P. Droogers, and J.N.M. Stricker, 1993a. Estimation of regional effective soil hydraulic parameters by inverse modelling. In ‘Water flow and solute transport in soils: modelling and application’, D. Russo and G. Dagan (Eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 211-231.
  • Feddes, R.A., M. Menenti, P. Kabat, and W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, 1993b. Is large scale inverse modelling of unsaturated flow with areal average evaporation and surface soil moisture as estimated from remote sensing feasible? J. Hydrol., 143: 125-152.
  • Wösten, J.H.M., P.A. Finke, and M.J.W. Jansen, 1995. Comparison of class and continuous pedotransfer functions to generate soil hydraulic characteristics. Geoderma, 66: 227-237.
  • Finke, P.A., J.H.M. Wösten, and J.G. Kroes, 1996a. Comparing two approaches of characterizing soil map unit behaviour in solute transport. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 60: 200-205.
  • Kabat, P., R.W.A. Hutjes, and R.A. Feddes, 1997. The scaling characteristics of soil parameters: from plot scale heterogeneity to subgrid parameterization. J. Hydrol., 190: 363-396.
  • Groot, W.J.M de., P.A. Finke, J. Oude Voshaar, M.J.D. Hack-ten Broeke, F. de Vries and Y. van Randen, 1998. Soil schematisation. Upscaling by aggregation of soil information for model simulations at national and regional level. Report 651, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 62 p. (in Dutch)
  • Kelleners, T.J., J. Beekma, and M.R. Chaudhry, 1999. Spatially variable soil hydraulic properties for simulation of field-scale solute transport in the unsaturated zone. Geoderma, 92: 199-215.
  • Hupet, F., J.C. van Dam, and M. Vanclooster. 2004. Impact of within-field variability of soil hydraulic functions on transpiration and crop yields: a numerical study. Vadose Zone J. 3: 1367-1379.
  • Jhorar, R.K., J.C. van Dam, W.M.G. Bastiaanssen, and  R.A. Feddes. 2004. Calibration of effective soil hydraulic parameters of heterogeneous soil profiles. J. Hydrol. 285: 233-247.
  • Ritsema, C.J., J.C. van Dam, L.W. Dekker, and K. Oostindie. 2005. A new modeling approach to simulate preferential flow and transport in water repellent porous media: Model structure and validation. Australian J. Soil Res. 43: 361-369.
  • Kramers, G., J.C. van Dam, C.J. Ritsema, F. Stagnitti, K. Oostindie, and L.W. Dekker. 2005. A new modeling approach to simulate preferential flow and transport in water repellent porous media: Parameter sensitivity, and effects on crop growth and solute leaching. Australian J. Soil Res. 43: 371-382.

Applications: Soil erosion

  • Boers, Th.M., 1994. Rain water harvesting in arid and semi-arid zones. PhD-thesis, Wageningen University, 133 p.
  • Roo, A.P.J. de, C.G. Wesseling, and C.J. Ritsema, 1996. LISEM, a single event physically based hydrological and soil erosion model for drainage basins. Theory, input and output. Hydrol. Process., 10: 1107-1117.

Applications: Soil moisture indicators for natural vegetations

  • Runhaar, J., J.P.M. Witte, and P.H. Verburg, 1997. Groundwater level, moisture supply, and vegetation in The Netherlands. Wetlands, 17: 528-538.
  • Jansen, P.C., J. Runhaar, J.P.M. Witte, and J.C. van Dam, 2000. Wetness indication of grass vegetations in relation to the moisture status of soils. Report 057, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 59 p. (in Dutch)

Applications: Sensitivity analysis

  • Finke, P.A., J.H.M. Wösten, and M.J.W. Jansen, 1996b. Effects of uncertainty in major input variables on simulated soil behaviour. Hydrol. Process., 10: 661-669.
  • Wesseling, J.G., J.G. Kroes, and K. Metselaar, 1998. Global sensitivity analysis of the Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant (SWAP) model. Report 160, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen, 67 p.

Applications: Integration with other model systems

  • Ashby, M., A.J. Dolman, P. Kabat, E.J. Moors and M.J. Oginnk-Hendriks, 1996. SWAPS version 1.0. Technical reference manual. Technical Document 42. Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen
  • Tiktak, A., F. van den Berg, J.J.T.I. Boesten, M. Leistra, A.M.A. van der Linden, and D. van Kraalingen, 2000. Pesticide Emission at Regional and Local scales: Pearl version 1.1 User Manual. RIVM report 711401008, report 29, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.
  • Leistra, M., A.M.A. van der Linden, J.J.T.I. Boesten, A. Tiktak, and F. van den Berg, 2000. PEARL model for pesticide behaviour and emissions in soil-plant systems. Description of processes. Report 13, Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen.
  • Kroes, J.G., P.J.T. van Bakel, J. Huygen, T. Kroon, H.Th.L. Massop, and R. Pastoors. 2002. Regional validation of a nation wide application of a comprehensive 1D-hydrological model. In Proc. of the 5th Int. symposium on spatial accuracy assessment in natural resources and environmental sciences. ISBN 0734022123. Melbourne, Australia.
  • Stoppelenburg, F.J., K. Kovar, M.J.H. Pastoors, and A. Tiktak. 2005. Modeling the interactions between transient saturated and unsaturated groundwater. Off-line coupling of LGM and SWAP. RIVM report 500026001/2005. Bilthoven, the Netherlands.