Documentation WOFOST

Manuals and reference guides

Presentations about WOFOST

Publications about or using WOFOST

Reference publications

  • Boogaard, H.L., van Diepen, C.A., Roetter, R.P., Cabrera, J.M.C.A. and Laar, H.H.v., 1998. WOFOST 7.1 : user's guide for the WOFOST 7.1 crop growth simulation model and WOFOST Control Center 1.5. Technical document / DLO Winand Staring Centre;52. DLO Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen.
  • Supit, I., Hooijer, A.A. and Diepen van, C.A., 1994. System Description of the WOFOST 6.0 Crop Simulation Model Implemented in CGMS, Volume 1: Theory and Algorithms. EUR 15956 EN, Joint Research Center, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
  • Diepen, C.A., van, Wolf, J. and Keulen, H., van, 1989. WOFOST: a simulation model of crop production. Soil Use and Management, 5: 16-24
  • Keulen, H. van ; Wolf, J. 1986. Modelling of agricultural production : weather, soils and crops.

Climate Change

  • Supit, I., van Diepen, C.A., de Wit, A.J.W., Wolf, J., Kabata, P., Baruth, B., Ludwig, F., 2012. Assessing climate change effects on European crop yields using the Crop Growth Monitoring System and a weather generator. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 164:96–111
  • Van Walsum, P.E.V., Supit, I., 2012. Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1577-1593. doi:10.5194/hess-16-1577-2012
  • Kroes, J.G., Supit, I., 2011. Impact analysis of drought and salinity on grassland production in the Netherlands using historical and future climate data. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 144:370-381. DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2011.09.008
  • Supit, I., C.A. van Diepen, A.J.W. de Wit, P. Kabat, B. Baruth and F. Ludwig. Recent changes in the climatic yield potential of various crops in Europe. 2010. Agricultural Systems. In press.
  • Supit, I., van Diepen, C.A., Boogaard, H.L., Ludwig, F. and Baruth, B., 2010. Trend analysis of the water requirements, consumption and deficit of field crops in Europe. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150(1): 77-88
  • Reidsma, P., Ewert, F., Boogaard, H. and Diepen, K.v., 2009. Regional crop modelling in Europe: The impact of climatic conditions and farm characteristics on maize yields. Agricultural Systems, 100(1-3): 51-60
  • Alexandrov, V.A. and Eitzinger, J., 2005. The potential effect of climate change and elevated air carbon dioxide on agricultural crop production in central and southeastern Europe. Journal of Crop Improvement, 13(1-2): 291-331
  • Marletto, V. et al., 2005. Evaluation of downscaled DEMETER multi-model ensemble seasonal hindcasts in a nothern Italy location by means of a model of wheat growth and soil water balance. Tellus, Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 57(3): 488-497
  • Haberle, J. and Van Diepen, C.A., 1999. Variability of potential and water-limited sugar beet and spring wheat yields simulated with wofost model. Rostlinna Vyroba, 45(10): 433-438
  • Wolf, J. and van Diepen, C.A., 1995. Effects of climate change on grain maize yield potential in the European Community. Climatic Change, 29(3): 299-331
  • Rötter, R., Veeneklaas, F.R. and C.A. van Diepen (1995). Impacts of changes in climate and socio-economic factors on land use in the Rhine basin: projections for the decade 2040-49.- Proceedings, International Conference of Climate Change Research, Maastricht 6-9 December 1994, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Rötter, R.P. & C.A. van Diepen (1994). Rhine basin study: Land use projections based on biophysical and socio-economic analyses. Volume 2.Climate change impact on crop yield and water use. SC-DLO Report 85.2 Wageningen, The Netherlands.
  • Wolf, J. and van Diepen, C.A., 1994. Effects of climate change on silage maize production potential in the European Community. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 71(1-2): 33-60
  • Wolf, J., 1993. Effects of climate change on wheat production potential in the European Community. European Journal of Agronomy, 2(4): 281-292

Regional yield forecasting

  • Wolf, J., Hessel, R., Boogaard, H.L., De Wit, A., Akkermans, W. and van Diepen, C.A., 2011. Modelling Winter Wheat Production across Europe with WOFOST - The Effect of Two New Zonations and Two Newly Calibrated Model Parameter Sets. In: L.R. Ahuja and L. Ma (Editors), Methods of introducing system models into agricultural research. Advances in Agricultural Systems Modelling Series 2. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp. 297-326.
  • de Wit A, Baruth B, Boogaard H, van Diepen K, van Kraalingen D, Micale F, te Roller J, Supit I, van den Wijngaart R 2010. Using ERA-INTERIM for regional crop yield forecasting in Europe. Climate Research. DOI: 10.3354/cr00872
  • Wit, A.J.W.d., Boogaard, H.L. and Diepen, C.A.v., 2005. Spatial resolution of precipitation and radiation: The effect on regional crop yield forecasts. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 135(1-4): 156-168
  • Supit, I., 1997. Predicting national wheat yields using a crop simulation and trend models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 88(1-4): 199-214
  • Vossen, P. and Rijks, D., 1995. Early crop yield assessment of the E.U. countries: the system implemented by the Joint Research Centre. EUR 16318, Publication of the Office for Offical Publications of the E.C., Luxembourg.

Crop yield analysis

  • Dobermann, A, Dawe, D, Rötter, RP & KG Cassman (2000). Reversal of rice yield decline in a long-term continuous cropping experiment. Agronomy Journal, 92:633-643.
  • Rötter, R, Van Keulen, H., Jansen, MJW (1997). Variations in yield response to fertilizer application in the tropics: I. Quantifying risks and opportunities for smallholders based on crop growth simulation. Agricultural Systems, 53: 41-68.
  • Rötter, R & H Van Keulen, (1997). Variations in yield response to fertilizer application in the tropics: II. Risks and opportunities for smallholders cultivating maize on Kenya’s arable land. Agricultural Systems, 53: 69-95.
  • Rötter, R. and C. Dreiser (1994). Extrapolation of maize fertilizer trial results by using crop-growth simulation: Results for Murang'a  district, Kenya. In: L.O. Fresco, L. Stroosnijder, J. Bouma & H. Van Keulen, eds., The Future of the Land, Mobilising and Integrating knowledge for land use options, John Wiley & Sons, p.249-260.
  • Rötter, R.P. (1993) Simulation of the biophysical limitations to maize production under rainfed conditions in Kenya. Evaluation and  application of the model WOFOST. PhD Thesis, Universität Trier, Germany (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, Heft 12), 297 p.

Satellite data assimilation

  • de Wit, A., Duveiller, G. and Defourny, P., 2012. Estimating regional winter wheat yield with WOFOST through the assimilation of green area index retrieved from MODIS observations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 164: 39-52.
  • Roerink, G.J., Bojanowski, J.S., de Wit, A.J.W., Eerens, H., Supit, I., Leo, O. and Boogaard, H.L., 2012. Evaluation of MSG-derived global radiation estimates for application in a regional crop model. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 160: 36-47. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.02.006
  • Curnel, Y., de Wit, A.J.W., Duveiller, G. and Defourny, P., 2011. Potential performances of remotely sensed LAI assimilation in WOFOST model based on an OSS Experiment. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151(12): 1843-1855.
  • de Wit, A.J.W. and van Diepen, C.A., 2008. Crop growth modelling and crop yield forecasting using satellite-derived meteorological inputs. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 10(4): 414-425
  • Yuping, M. et al., 2008. Monitoring winter wheat growth in North China by combining a crop model and remote sensing data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 10(4): 426-437
  • de Wit, A.J.W. and van Diepen, C.A., 2007. Crop model data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman filter for improving regional crop yield forecasts. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 146(1-2): 38-56
  • de Wit, A.J.W., Boogaard, H.L. and van Diepen, C.A., 2004. Using NOAA-AVHRR estimates of land surface temperature for regional agrometeorogical modelling. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 5(3): 187-204
  • de Wit, A.J.W., 1999. Application of a genetic algorithm for crop model steering using NOAA-AVHRR data, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Proceedings of the 1999 Remote Sensing for Earth Science, Ocean, and Sea Ice Applications. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Florence, Italy, pp. 167-181.

Model intercomparison

  • Todorovic, M. et al., 2009. Assessment of aquacrop, cropsyst, and WOFOST models in the simulation of sunfl ower growth under different water regimes. Agronomy Journal, 101(3): 509-521
  • Confalonieri, R., Acutis, M., Bellocchi, G. and Donatelli, M., 2009. Multi-metric evaluation of the models WARM, CropSyst, and WOFOST for rice. Ecological Modelling, 220(11): 1395-1410
  • Eitzinger, J., Trnka, M., Hösch, J., Žalud, Z. and Dubrovský, M., 2004. Comparison of CERES, WOFOST and SWAP models in simulating soil water content during growing season under different soil conditions. Ecological Modelling, 171(3): 223-246


  • Wit, A. de. 2007. Regional crop yield forecasting using probalistic crop growth modelling and remote sensing data assimilation. PhD Thesis Wageningen University (
  • Wu, D., Yu, Q., Lu, C. and Hengsdijk, H., 2006. Quantifying production potentials of winter wheat in the North China Plain. European Journal of Agronomy, 24(3): 226-235
  • Hengsdijk, H., Meijerink, G.W. and Mosugu, M.E., 2005. Modeling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105(1-2): 29-40
  • Savin, I.Y., Ovechkin, S.V. and Aleksandrova, E.V., 1997. The WOFOST Simulation Model of Crop Growth and Its Application for the Analysis of Land Resources. Eurasian Soil Science, 30(7): 758-765