Environmental zone Mediterranean occupies lowlands in northern, uplands and low mountains in southern Mediterranean. Common landforms are lowlands of intermountain troughs and coastal plains, plateaus with isolated mountains, mountain piedmonts, low mountains and uplands.
Climate is Mediterranean, typical for the winter maximum of precipitations and dry summer. Growing season lasts 335 days (290-365), sum of active temperatures is 5104°C (4509°-6112°).
The parts of the Pyrenean in this zone and North-East region of the Padua-Venetian Plain have developed on the mantle of Epi-Palaeozoic platform. The Padua-Venetian Plain is dominated by Holocene, Balkan segments by the Low Palaeozoic – Middle Pre-Cambrian deposits. In the Trough of Middle Douro the dominating geological formations are Archaean and acidic and intermediate magmatic rocks of Palaeozoic age. In the upper Ebro the rocks are from the Miocene and Oligocene, from Neocene and Pleistocene in the Upper Rhône, Miocene in Gascogne and mostly Mesozoic and Palaeocene on the Dalmatian coast. The Rodopi consist of a complex of Neocene and Middle Palaeozoic. Montenegro and Albania are dominated by various Mesozoic deposits and ultrabasic intrusions of the same age. The Spanish Meseta lies on the foldings of Hercynian (West) and Epi-Palaeozoic (East) origin. The dominating geological formations are: Miocene and Oligocene (Upper Aragon). . The outer ranges of the Sierra Nevada and the Sierra de los Filabres, as well as segments in Peloponnesus belong to the Alpine orogenic belt. Macedonia is characterized by Middle Pre-Cambrian-Lower Palaeozoic formations and Thraki also by Pliocene. The Quaternary complex is dominated by eluvial-deluvial deposits.
The vegetation consists mostly of scrub formations (e.g. maquis, garrigue, phrygana); most of them are successions of originally dominating forests. Agricultural lands dominate the region; major products are wheat, wine, olives and fruits. In Spain the Meseta is dissected by long distance drove roads (cañadas) of sheep grazing. There are many regional agricultural products varying from fruits and meat to wine.