Insight into the risks of nanotechnology and the use of nanoparticles is an essential condition for the social acceptance and safe use of nanotechnology. One of the problems with which the risk assessment of nanoparticles is faced, is the lack of data. This results in large uncertainty in the risk assessment. Traditionally this problem is solved deterministically by using worst case scenarios. This, however, provides an unrealistic picture of the actual risk. An alternative is to quantitatively incorporate the uncertainty into the risk assessment using probabilistic methods. In this paper, we expand the deterministic study of Dekkers et al. (2010) on nano-silica in food into a fully integrated probabilistic risk assessment. IPRA (Voet et al. 2007) is a probabilistic risk assessment method to calculate the Margin of Exposure in a probabilistic way. The main aspects include using distributions instead of worst-case values and separating variability from uncertainty. The overall result of the probabilistic analysis of the risk of nano-silica in food products is not alarming. It would seem that even considering the various sources of uncertainty, the final risk assessment does not indicate a higher risk than was concluded by Dekkers et al. (2010).
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