CGN cereals collection

The collection consists of Avena (oat), Hordeum (barley) and Triticum (wheat). The small grain cereal collection originated to a large extent from the former Foundation for Agricultural Plant Breeding (SVP) and the Department of Plant Breeding of the Agricultural University of Wageningen (IVP).

Additional material was obtained from other mainly Dutch institutions and private breeding companies. The three cereal collections receive less emphasis in the genetic resources activities of CGN (van Soest et al., 1995). Detailed information on the cereal collections have been published by (van Soest and Boukema, 1995). A search has been carried out to identify accessions which originally had been received from collections of IPK, Gatersleben and USDA National Germplasm System. The respective curators have been consulted and the assurance was given  that the duplicated accessions are being maintained and are available from their collections.  In 2011 a total of 1582 accessions (743 and 848 respectively) of Triticum, Hordeum and Avena have been removed from the CGN cereals collection and are being stored as archive collection at  -20 °C.

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Regeneration and characterization

Most of the material included in the small grain cereal collections has been regenerated and is stored under long term storage conditions (-20°C) in the genebank facilities of CGN. Regeneration of a large part of the collection took place between 1986 and 1992, partly in cooperation with private cereal breeding firms in the Netherlands. The winter types are sown in October and the spring types in March at a density of 350-400 seeds per m2 in plots of 1 m2 and 20-25 cm row distance. The plots are separated by a path of 80 cm. The seeds are harvested with a special combine. During the regeneration the cultivated accessions are characterized for a minimal set of agro-morphological traits using descriptor lists developed by CGN (Koch, 1985 and Loosdrecht, 1985). The wild cereals are regenerated in the greenhouse. The wintertypes are vernalized as seedlings in a cold  greenhouse at 5°C for at least six weeks. During flowering, the ears are wrapped up in perforated polythene bags in order to collect the seeds which scatter as soon as they are ripe.

Evaluation data are available of screenings for resistance to some important cereal diseases such as Erisiphe graminis (wheat and barley), Puccinia hordei (barley), Puccinia striiformis (wheat), Rhynchosporium secalis (barley), Pyrenophora ssp. (barley), Mycosphaerella graminicola (wheat) and Puccinia triticina (wheat).

12 accessions from the CGN oat collection have extensively been characterized and evaluated for several properties in the EC 1467/94 project "Evaluation and enhancement of Avena landrace collections for extensification of the genetic basis of Avena for quality and resistance breeding". Results of this project are searchable and downloadable  via the website of GENRES#CT99-106: Evaluation and enhancement of Avena collections.  

Triticum and Avena accessions from the collection have been used in studies in the framework of the Celiac Disease Consortium. (Herpen et al., 2006, Salentijn et al., 2009, Broeck et al., 2010, Mujico et al. 2011)


Broeck, H.C. van den; Jong, H.C. de; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Dekking, L.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, I.M. van der; Smulders, M.J.M. (2010) Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 121 (8). - p. 1527 - 1539.

Hashmi, N.I., L.J.M.van Soest, A.R.Rao, M. Mesken and Zahoor Amad (1981) Collecting in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 47: 31-35. 

Herpen, T.W.J.M. van; Goryunova-Svetlana, V.; Schoot, J. van der; Mitreva, M.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Schenk, M.F.; Veelen, P. van; Koning, F. de; Soest, L.J.M. van; Vosman, B.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M. (2006) Alpha-gliadin genes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat contain different sets of celiac disease epitopes. BMC Genomics 7 . - p. 1.

Koch, M.(1985). Descriptorlijst  Gerst. CGN/SVP, Wageningen. 7p.
Loosdrecht, M.P.H.van, (1985) Descriptorlijst Triticum. CGN/SVP, Wageningen. 8p.

Loosdrecht, M.P.H.van, (1986) Inventarisatie en documentatie van de Wageningse Triticinae Collectie (WTC). CGN rap. 1986-3, Wageningen. 13p.

Mujico, J.R.; Mitea, C.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Ru, A.; Veelen, P. van; Smulders, M.J.M.; Koning, F. de (2011)Natural variation in avenin epitopes among oat varieties: implications for Celiac. Journal of Cereal Science 54 (1). - p. 8 - 12.

Morris, R. and E.R. Sears (1967) The cytogenetics of wheat and its relatives. In: Quisenberry, K.S. and L.P. Reitz (eds.). Wheat and wheat improvement. Winconsin, American Soc. of Agronomy Monograph no.13: 19-87.

Salentijn, E.M.J.; Goryunova, S.V.; Bas, N.; Meer, I.M. van der; Broeck, H.C. van den; Bastien, T.A.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M., (2009) Tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties reveal large differences in expression of alpha-gliadins from homoelogous Gli-loci. BMC Genomics 10 . - p. 48.

Soest, van L.J.M.,., I.W. Boukema and Th.J.L. van Hintum (1995) CGN does more than collecting and freezing seeds. Prophyta Yearbook 1995. Volume 49: 94-97.

Soest, L.J.M. van, en I.W. Boukema (eds.) (1995). Diversiteit in de Nederlandse Genenbank. Een overzicht van de CGN collecties. Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN). Centrum voor Plantenveredelings-en Reproduktieonderzoek (CPRO-DLO), Wageningen. 126p.

Soest, L.J.M. van & N. Bas (2005) Wheat genetic resources in the Netherlands. In Lipman et al., compilers. Cereal Genetic Resources in Europe, Report of a Cereals Network, First meeting, 2-5 July 2003, Rome, Italy.