Frequent use of antimicrobial agents in livestock production stimulates the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Reducing antimicrobial use can contribute to a reduction of the risk of resistance. Although veterinary use of antimicrobial agents has been reduced already, further reductions are needed. The aim of this research was therefore to assess the scope for, and farm-economic impact of reducing antimicrobial use in livestock production. The results of this research show a large variation in both the technical farm performance and antimicrobial use. Hence, there are still possibilities for further reductions of antimicrobial use at the individual farm level. In addition, the results of this research indicate that farm-specific interventions (aimed at the farmer, the farm and/or the animals) can contribute to a reduction of antimicrobial use without adversely affecting the technical farm performance.