This thesis provides a joint analysis of land tenure security, migration and farm performance in China. Land tenure security is an important precondition for the economic development and livelihood security of rural households. This study starts with identifying influencing factors of persistence of land reallocations, which is the major sources of actual land tenure insecurity in rural China, and then the impact of actual land tenure security on households’ perceptions of land tenure security. Despite the role of land tenure reforms in livelihood security, migration to off-farm sectors is a crucial livelihood strategy for rural households to reduce poverty and increase income. This study turns to explore the impact of actual and perceived land tenure security on migration of rural households, and the economic and environmental consequences of the migration of rural households.