Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) strategies aim for the sustainable use of forest resources and to maintain forest-related ecosystem services for future generations. SFM is a central concept in international debates on forest governance. When SFM ‘travels’ from international debates to implementation on the ground, translations of the concept result in different outcomes. The PhD-thesis investigates these translations. It shows how rules, norms, and belief that are associated with SFM are translated to domestic and sub-national policy frameworks that affect Caatinga biome in Brazil. The results highlight that the global-local nexus of SFM is characterised by a complex set of translations. These involve governmental institutions, national and international food and timber markets, regional industries and businesses, administrative and technical capacities, and local communities. The thesis concludes that SFM translations are strongly linked to the consideration of the needs and interests of multiple actors that are active on all levels of governance.