Ecosystem service benefits in a perennial fruit crop: How do insect pollinators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil organic matter shape raspberry production?
Ecological intensification has the potential to increase yields of agricultural production while reducing its environmental impact. It relies on managing biodiversity to enhance ecosystem service delivery. Currently, little is known whether multiple ecosystem services interact and whether these interactions would be influenced by agricultural management. This thesis aims to examine the combined effects of ecosystem services, provided by insect pollinators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil organic matter (SOM), and artificial fertilizer inputs on the quantity and quality of raspberry production. The thesis involves a forest investigation and three field experiments. The main results show that the effects of the studied ecosystem services on raspberry yield are mainly additive, and generally complement the effects of fertilizer inputs. A general conclusion would be that insect pollination, AMF inoculation and SOM have the potential to be managed as components of ecological intensification, and fertilizer inputs are essential to sustain their benefits.