Improving circularity of biomass ash. Theoretical, experimental, and modelling approach to find sustainable solutions for application in cement or soil
Environmental awareness has become increasingly important in our society. Making sustainable products by using waste materials is one of the main challenges for future society. Reusing waste can in fact reduce the environmental impact of products and contribute to a more sustainable world.
Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity or heat. Biomass ash is what is left after burning biomass. Currently it is a common practice to dispose the biomass ash in a dedicated site. But biomass ash still contains many valuable chemical elements which were present in the original biomass before being burned.
This thesis has showed that biomass ash can function as material to produce cement. Considering the life cycle perspective, using biomass ash in cement is more sustainable than landfilling reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide between 11 and 26%. Considering the current regulatory framework, blending biomass ash with cement is favoured over soil applications.