Marine monitoring in the European Union: How to fulfill the requirements for the marine strategy framework directive in an efficient and integrated way

Zampoukas, N.; Piha, H.; Bigagli, E.; Hoepffner, N.; Hanke, G.; Cardoso, A.C.


The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires from European Union Member States to establish by 2014 ecological monitoring programmes covering all their marine waters and therefore extend existing monitoring and include additional elements. Principles of integrated monitoring and large scale approaches discussed in this communication could contribute to effective and cost efficient programmes