Occurrence of chloramphenicol in cereal straw in north-western Europe
Nordkvist, Erik; Zuidema, Tina; Herbes, Rik G.; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.
Two surveys are presented of straw analysed for naturally occurring chloramphenicol (CAP), a drug banned for use in food-producing animals. In the first study, CAP was analysed by LC-MS/MS and detected in 37 out of 105 straw samples originating from the Netherlands, France, the UK, Germany and Denmark. The highest level found was 6.3 µg kg−1, the average 0.6 µg kg−1 and the median 0.2 µg kg−1. The second study included a method comparison between ELISA and LC-MS/MS and a survey of CAP in cereal straw sampled at farms in all areas of Sweden. A total of 215 samples were screened by ELISA and a subset of 26 samples was also analysed by LC-MS/MS. Fifty-four of the samples contained more than 1 µg kg−1 CAP and the highest level found was 32 µg kg−1 (confirmed by LC-MS/MS). The highest contents of CAP in this study were allocated to the Baltic sea coast in the south-eastern part of Sweden (the county of Skåne and the Baltic Sea isle of Gotland). These results indicate a high incidence of CAP in straw in north-west Europe and have a severe impact on the enforcement of European Union legislation.