Contact-zoonotic bacteria of warm water ornamental and cultured fish

Haenen, O.L.M.; Karunasagar, Iddya; Manfrin, Amedeo; Znrcic, Snjezana; Lavilla-Pitogo, Celia; Lawrence, Mark; Hanson, Larry; Subasinghe, Rohana; Bondad-Reantaso, Melba; Karunasagar, Indrani


In this small review, the most important contact-zoonotic bacteria and the diseases they cause in fish and humans are described. Especially, warmwaterornamental and fish culture professionals, owners, and processors are at risk in acquiring infections by Vibrio vulnificus, Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae,or Streptococcusagalactiae, transmitted from their fish and fish water, in freshwater to marine environments. The chance of acquiring such a zoonosis is low, unless humans are immuno-compromised, and in case their skin is injured. These zoonoses are under reported, as in most countries they are non-notifiable. Strict hygiene for humans having direct contact with these fish in various fish holding and rearing facilities, and regular screening and health checks of imported warmwater ornamental fish at airports are recommended to avoid zoonosis and spread of potentially zoonotic, and often multiresistant bacteria.