Alternatives to Meat and Dairy

Kyriakopoulou, K.; Keppler, J.K.; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M.


The increasing size and affluence of the global population have led to a rising demand for high-protein foods such as dairy and meat. Because it will be impossible to supply sufficient protein to everyone solely with dairy and meat, we need to transition at least part of our diets toward protein foods that are more sustainable to produce. The best way to convince consumers to make this transition is to offer products that easily fit into their current habits and diets by mimicking the original foods. This review focuses on methods of creating an internal microstructure close to that of the animal-based originals. One can directly employ plant products, use intermediates such as cell factories, or grow cultured meat by using nutrients of plant origin. We discuss methods of creating high-quality alternatives to meat and dairy foods, describe their relative merits, and provide an outlook toward the future.