Pentavalent Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA)/DIVA Vaccine Provides Protection in Sheep and Cattle against Different Serotypes of Bluetongue Virus

Rijn, P.A. van; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Spedicato, Massimo; Savini, Giovanni; Gennip, H.G.P. van


Bluetongue (BT) is a midge-borne OIE-notifiable disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). There are at least 29 BTV serotypes as determined by serum neutralization tests and genetic analyses of genome segment 2 encoding serotype immunodominant VP2 protein. Large parts of the world are endemic for multiple serotypes. The most effective control measure of BT is vaccination. Conventionally live-attenuated and inactivated BT vaccines are available but have their specific pros and cons and are not DIVA compatible. The prototype Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA)/DIVA vaccine based on knockout of NS3/NS3a protein of live-attenuated BTV, shortly named DISA8, fulfills all criteria for modern veterinary vaccines of sheep. Recently, DISA8 with an internal in-frame deletion of 72 amino acid codons in NS3/NS3a showed a similar ideal vaccine profile in cattle. Here, the DISA/DIVA vaccine platform was applied for other serotypes, and pentavalent DISA/DIVA vaccine for “European” serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 was studied in sheep and cattle. Protection was demonstrated for two serotypes, and neutralization Ab titers indicate protection against other included serotypes. The DISA/DIVA vaccine platform is flexible in use and generates monovalent and multivalent DISA vaccines to combat specific field situations with respect to Bluetongue.