Responses of soil microbial communities to concentration gradients of antibiotic residues in typical greenhouse vegetable soils
Zhao, Lixia; Pan, Zheng; Sun, Baoli; Sun, Yang; Weng, Liping; Li, Xiaojing; Ye, Huike; Ye, Jianzhi; Pan, Xiaowei; Zhou, Bin; Li, Yongtao
To explore the responses of soil microbial communities to concentration gradients of antibiotic residues in soil, 32 soil samples were collected from a typical greenhouse vegetable production base in Northern China in 2019. The total concentrations of 26 antibiotic residues in these soil samples was 83.24–4237.93 μg·kg−1, of which metabolites of tetracyclines were 23.34–1798.80 μg·kg−1. The total concentrations in 32 samples were clustered into three levels (L: <100 μg·kg−1, M: 100–300 μg·kg−1, H: >300 μg·kg−1) to elucidate the impacts of antibiotic residues on the diversity, structure, composition, function and antibiotic resistome of soil microbial community. Results showed that higher concentration of antibiotic residues in soil was prone to decrease the diversity and shift the structure and composition of soil microbial community. Antibiotic resistome occurred in soils with antibiotic residues exceeding 300 μg·kg−1. Interactions among soil bacteria followed the order of H > L > M, consistent with the relative abundances of mobile genetic elements. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the top attributors impacting the profile of antibiotics in soil. According to weighted comprehensive pollution index of risk quotient, in 28.1 % of soil samples the residual antibiotics presented high ecological risk, whereas in the rest of soil samples the ecological risk is medium. The results will enrich the database and provide references for antibiotic contamination control in soils of the region and alike.